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新聞動態
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NEWS INFORMATION

MongoDB索引類型匯總分享

發布日期:2022-07-15 19:52 | 文章來源:gibhub

MongoDB 4.2官方支持索引類型如下:

  • 單字段索引
  • 復合索引
  • 多鍵索引
  • 文本索引
  • 2dsphere索引
  • 2d索引
  • geoHaystack索引
  • 哈希索引

單字段索引

在單個字段上創建升序索引

handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.getIndexes()
[
	{
		"v" : 2,
		"key" : {
			"_id" : 1
		},
		"name" : "_id_",
		"ns" : "db6.test"
	}
]

在字段id上添加升序索引

handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.createIndex({"id":1})
{
	"createdCollectionAutomatically" : false,
	"numIndexesBefore" : 1,
	"numIndexesAfter" : 2,
	"ok" : 1,
	"$clusterTime" : {
		"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1621322378, 1),
		"signature" : {
			"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
			"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
		}
	},
	"operationTime" : Timestamp(1621322378, 1)
}
handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.getIndexes()
[
	{
		"v" : 2,
		"key" : {
			"_id" : 1
		},
		"name" : "_id_",
		"ns" : "db6.test"
	},
	{
		"v" : 2,
		"key" : {
			"id" : 1
		},
		"name" : "id_1",
		"ns" : "db6.test"
	}
]
handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.find({"id":100})
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a35d061f183b1d8f092114"), "id" : 100, "name" : "handong", "ziliao" : { "name" : "handong", "age" : 25, "hobby" : "mongodb" } }

上述查詢可以使用新建的單字段索引。

在嵌入式字段上創建索引

handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.createIndex({"ziliao.name":1})
{
	"createdCollectionAutomatically" : false,
	"numIndexesBefore" : 2,
	"numIndexesAfter" : 3,
	"ok" : 1,
	"$clusterTime" : {
		"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1621323677, 2),
		"signature" : {
			"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
			"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
		}
	},
	"operationTime" : Timestamp(1621323677, 2)
}

以下查詢可以用的新建的索引。

db.test.find({"ziliao.name":"handong"})

在內嵌文檔上創建索引

handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.createIndex({ziliao:1})
{
	"createdCollectionAutomatically" : false,
	"numIndexesBefore" : 3,
	"numIndexesAfter" : 4,
	"ok" : 1,
	"$clusterTime" : {
		"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1621324059, 2),
		"signature" : {
			"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
			"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
		}
	},
	"operationTime" : Timestamp(1621324059, 2)
}

以下查詢可以使用新建的索引。

db.test.find({ziliao:{ "name" : "handong", "age" : 25, "hobby" : "mongodb" }})

復合索引

創建復合索引

db.user.createIndex({"product_id":1,"type":-1})

以下查詢可以用到新建的復合索引

db.user.find({"product_id":"e5a35cfc70364d2092b8f5d14b1a3217","type":0})

多鍵索引

基于一個數組創建索引,MongoDB會自動創建為多鍵索引,無需刻意指定。
多鍵索引也可以基于內嵌文檔來創建。
多鍵索引的邊界值的計算依賴于特定的規則。
查看文檔:

handong1:PRIMARY> db.score.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a32d7f1f183b1d8f0920ad"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ { "english" : 90, "math" : 99, "physics" : 88 } ], "is_del" : false }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a32d8b1f183b1d8f0920ae"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ 99, 98, 97, 96 ], "is_del" : false }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a32d9a1f183b1d8f0920af"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ 100, 100, 100, 100 ], "is_del" : false }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a32e8c1f183b1d8f0920b0"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ { "english" : 70, "math" : 99, "physics" : 88 } ], "is_del" : false }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a37b141f183b1d8f0aa751"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ 96, 95 ] }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a37b1d1f183b1d8f0aa752"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ 96, 95, 94 ] }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a37b221f183b1d8f0aa753"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ 96, 95, 94, 93 ] }

創建score字段多鍵索引:

db.score.createIndex("score":1)
handong1:PRIMARY> db.score.find({"score":[ 96, 95 ]})
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a37b141f183b1d8f0aa751"), "name" : "dandan", "age" : 30, "score" : [ 96, 95 ] }

查看執行計劃:

handong1:PRIMARY> db.score.find({"score":[ 96, 95 ]}).explain()
{
	"queryPlanner" : {
		"plannerVersion" : 1,
		"namespace" : "db6.score",
		"indexFilterSet" : false,
		"parsedQuery" : {
			"score" : {
				"$eq" : [
					96,
					95
				]
			}
		},
		"queryHash" : "8D76FC59",
		"planCacheKey" : "E2B03CA1",
		"winningPlan" : {
			"stage" : "FETCH",
			"filter" : {
				"score" : {
					"$eq" : [
						96,
						95
					]
				}
			},
			"inputStage" : {
				"stage" : "IXSCAN",
				"keyPattern" : {
					"score" : 1
				},
				"indexName" : "score_1",
				"isMultiKey" : true,
				"multiKeyPaths" : {
					"score" : [
						"score"
					]
				},
				"isUnique" : false,
				"isSparse" : false,
				"isPartial" : false,
				"indexVersion" : 2,
				"direction" : "forward",
				"indexBounds" : {
					"score" : [
						"[96.0, 96.0]",
						"[[ 96.0, 95.0 ], [ 96.0, 95.0 ]]"
					]
				}
			}
		},
		"rejectedPlans" : [ ]
	},
	"serverInfo" : {
		"host" : "mongo3",
		"port" : 27017,
		"version" : "4.2.12",
		"gitVersion" : "5593fd8e33b60c75802edab304e23998fa0ce8a5"
	},
	"ok" : 1,
	"$clusterTime" : {
		"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1621326912, 1),
		"signature" : {
			"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
			"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
		}
	},
	"operationTime" : Timestamp(1621326912, 1)
}

可以看到已經使用了新建的多鍵索引。

文本索引

    為了支持對字符串內容的文本搜索查詢,MongoDB提供了文本索引。文本(text )索引可以包含任何值為字符串或字符串元素數組的字段

db.user.createIndex({"sku_attributes":"text"})
db.user.find({$text:{$search:"測試"}})

查看執行計劃:

handong1:PRIMARY> db.user.find({$text:{$search:"測試"}}).explain()
{
	"queryPlanner" : {
		"plannerVersion" : 1,
		"namespace" : "db6.user",
		"indexFilterSet" : false,
		"parsedQuery" : {
			"$text" : {
				"$search" : "測試",
				"$language" : "english",
				"$caseSensitive" : false,
				"$diacriticSensitive" : false
			}
		},
		"queryHash" : "83098EE1",
		"planCacheKey" : "7E2D582B",
		"winningPlan" : {
			"stage" : "TEXT",
			"indexPrefix" : {
				
			},
			"indexName" : "sku_attributes_text",
			"parsedTextQuery" : {
				"terms" : [
					"測試"
				],
				"negatedTerms" : [ ],
				"phrases" : [ ],
				"negatedPhrases" : [ ]
			},
			"textIndexVersion" : 3,
			"inputStage" : {
				"stage" : "TEXT_MATCH",
				"inputStage" : {
					"stage" : "FETCH",
					"inputStage" : {
						"stage" : "OR",
						"inputStage" : {
							"stage" : "IXSCAN",
							"keyPattern" : {
								"_fts" : "text",
								"_ftsx" : 1
							},
							"indexName" : "sku_attributes_text",
							"isMultiKey" : true,
							"isUnique" : false,
							"isSparse" : false,
							"isPartial" : false,
							"indexVersion" : 2,
							"direction" : "backward",
							"indexBounds" : {
								
							}
						}
					}
				}
			}
		},
		"rejectedPlans" : [ ]
	},
	"serverInfo" : {
		"host" : "mongo3",
		"port" : 27017,
		"version" : "4.2.12",
		"gitVersion" : "5593fd8e33b60c75802edab304e23998fa0ce8a5"
	},
	"ok" : 1,
	"$clusterTime" : {
		"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1621328543, 1),
		"signature" : {
			"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
			"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
		}
	},
	"operationTime" : Timestamp(1621328543, 1)
}

可以看到通過文本索引可以查到包含測試關鍵字的數據。
**注意:**可以根據自己需要創建復合文本索引。

2dsphere索引

創建測試數據

db.places.insert(
   {
      loc : { type: "Poi

添加2dsphere索引

db.places.createIndex( { loc : "2dsphere" } )
db.places.createIndex( { loc : "2dsphere" , category : -1, name: 1 } )

利用2dsphere索引查詢多邊形里的點

鳳凰嶺
[116.098234,40.110569]
天安門
[116.405239,39.913839]
四惠橋
[116.494351,39.912068]
望京
[116.494494,40.004594]

handong1:PRIMARY> db.places.find( { loc :
...                   { $geoWithin :
...                     { $geometry :
...                       { type : "Polygon" ,
...                         coordinates : [ [
...               [116.098234,40.110569] ,
...               [116.405239,39.913839] ,
...               [116.494351,39.912068] ,
...               [116.494494,40.004594] ,
...               [116.098234,40.110569]
...             ] ]
...                 } } } } )
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a4c950d4211a77d22bf7f8"), "loc" : { "type" : "Poi

可以看到把集合中包含在指定四邊形里的點,全部列了出來。

利用2dsphere索引查詢球體上定義的圓內的點

handong1:PRIMARY> db.places.find( { loc :
...                   { $geoWithin :
...                     { $centerSphere :
...                        [ [ 116.439518, 39.954751 ] , 2/3963.2 ]
...                 } } } )
{ "_id" : ObjectId("60a4c94fd4211a77d22bf7f7"), "loc" : { "type" : "Poi

返回所有半徑為經度 116.439518 E 和緯度 39.954751 N 的2英里內坐標。示例將2英里的距離轉換為弧度,通過除以地球近似的赤道半徑3963.2英里。

2d索引

在以下情況下使用2d索引:

  • 您的數據庫具有來自MongoDB 2.2或更早版本的舊版舊版坐標對。
  • 您不打算將任何位置數據存儲為GeoJSON對象。

哈希索引

要創建hashed索引,請指定 hashed 作為索引鍵的值,如下例所示:

handong1:PRIMARY> db.test.createIndex({"_id":"hashed"})
{
	"createdCollectionAutomatically" : false,
	"numIndexesBefore" : 4,
	"numIndexesAfter" : 5,
	"ok" : 1,
	"$clusterTime" : {
		"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1621419338, 1),
		"signature" : {
			"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
			"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
		}
	},
	"operationTime" : Timestamp(1621419338, 1)
}

注意事項

  • MongoDB支持任何單個字段的 hashed 索引。hashing函數折疊嵌入的文檔并計算整個值的hash值,但不支持多鍵(即.數組)索引。
  • 您不能創建具有hashed索引字段的復合索引,也不能在索引上指定唯一約束hashed;但是,您可以hashed在同一字段上創建索引和升序/降序(即非哈希)索引:MongoDB將對范圍查詢使用標量索引。

到此這篇關于MongoDB索引類型匯總分享的文章就介紹到這了,更多相關MongoDB索引內容請搜索本站以前的文章或繼續瀏覽下面的相關文章希望大家以后多多支持本站!

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